Tuesday, January 02, 2007

The God Delusion:宗教的根源(1)



宗教不能為人類社會帶來直接得益;它消耗那麼多資源,引起那麼多爭執,理應早被淘汰掉.但恰恰相反,宗教信仰能一代一代流傳.就算沒有信仰,任何人也不會對於神\靈魂\永生這些宗教概念陌生.這是很值得研究的現象.

信仰是不是進化的必然產品?有沒有科學的解釋,去說明宗教為甚麼能夠在人類社會持續發展?這是我近年常常思考,但一直沒有結論的問題.

直到前幾天,看完Richard Dawkins的 《The God Delusion》.明白到他那一套理論,可能是對宗教現象最合情理的解釋.忍不住要抄一抄書,在這裡和大家分享.你可能不同意,可能會覺得悶,也可能會覺得被冒犯.不過,希望你能認真看一看,想一想.

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要了解宗教出現的原因,先要了解人腦某些持別的本能.這些是進化得來的求生本能,但也間接促成了宗教的成長.我把它們分為三類:

目的和動機

人類會本能地找尋自然界中的目的和動機.我們看見一件物件,會問:它有甚麼用途?設計成這個樣子,有甚麼目的?當我們和別人接觸,也會問:他說這樣的話,做這樣的表情,有甚麼動機?

這其實是思考的捷徑.原始人只要記住火的目的是取暖和煮食,便懂得何時該生火,生了火應做甚麼.只要時刻警惕別人的意圖,便能分辨出是友是敵,更快決定甚麼時候要逃跑,甚麼時候要攻擊,誰人會是合適的配偶.

認定物件,動物,和人都隱藏著目的和動機,能增加了生存的機會.這「尋找背後意義」的本能,也自然地進化成為人腦功能的一部份.

絕對服從

人類社會需要累積大量知識.因為,沒有人一生下來便懂得狩獵,知道那種果實能吃,知道吸毒會上癮...

若果我們不服從父母和族中長輩的經驗,便學不到求生技能,也會遇到不必要的危險.所以絕對服從,甚至盲從,在進化上有它的優點.因此,聽父母和長者的話,不要質疑他們的權威,是人(特別是兒童)與生俱來的本能.



穩定的家庭,是傳宗接代的重要因素.因為人類的小孩要經十多年才能長大成人.若孩子未長大,爸媽便四散,他的生存機會將會十分渺茫.另一方面,人是群居動物.需要一種連繫的力量,保持群體的團結.

這力量,就是愛.男和女間,父母和子女間,家庭成員間的愛.是一個契約;保障了兒童的成長,也堅固了族群的力量.

所以,有時候我們會不惜一切去追求被別人接受和認同,追求那愛的感覺.

───

以上三項本能,是宗教在人類社會發展的背景因素.聰明的你,應該猜到它們和宗教的關係了.明天繼續...

7 comments:

  1. 其實你又不是教徒..但你好像對宗教很感興趣..是什麼原因呢???
    btw..下集幾時刊出?

    ReplyDelete
  2. 我也不清楚,可能是童年陰影,令我常常想研究聖經背後的真相.

    病了兩天,或者今晚會完成part2

    ReplyDelete
  3. > 宗教不能為人類社會帶來直接得益

    Um... do you still think so?

    可能只是你不覺得自己從宗教直接得益吧……

    我不懂怎樣說…… 但其實人類社會上許多好既野都係從宗教而來。(例如做善事。) 當然可能也有好多壞的事。但未至於「不能為人類社會帶來直接得益」吧。

    ReplyDelete
  4. 雲:

    怎麼說呢....我想表逹的是,宗教的好處(如愛人如己,維持社會秩序,個人心靈的平安喜樂,和你所說的做善事等等),都是derivative 的東西。宗教不能保證信了便能得益,很多人明知沒益處也去信。所以我覺得,這些益處都不是宗教的 primary goal。

    就如做善事。有心的話,每天也可以做,為甚麼要讀聖經,上教會,聽神父牧師訓導呢?兜了那麼大個圈,得到的卻是其他途徑也能獲得的東西,我覺得好唔efficient囉!

    ReplyDelete
  5. 因為可能人人都自動自覺咁love one's neighbor as oneself﹐就真的不需要宗教了。

    ReplyDelete
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